Site Characterization and Monitoring - Mapping Groundwater Flow Paths

Aquifer Geophysics
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Mapping preferrential groundwater flow paths in heterogeneous geology

using geophysical methods




Technology Description
The principals of electromagnetic conductivity are used to characterize subsurface water conditions.

Willowstick Technology is an active but non-intrusive geophysical method specifically designed for mapping groundwater.  The method works by establishing a signature electric circuit within the groundwater of interest then the distribution and flow of subsurface electric current is revealed by measuring the signature magnetic field at the surface.  On processing of the data, 2D maps and 3D models are generated and interpreted, in conjunction with other hydrogeologic data, to provide an enhanced definition of preferential groundwater flow paths.


More comprehensive descriptions of the technology are contained in several documents available in the 'Resources' section of this page, and at




Willowstick has proven effective in delineating, mapping and modeling subsurface aqueous systems in many complex hydro-geologic settings for over 130 clients in a variety of industrial applications.
The Willowstick method can provide unprecedented insight into subsurface groundwater conditions without enduring the expense and invasive inconvenience of drilling multiple boreholes and finding a considerable portion of them being dry!  
Mapping is possible to depths around 1 km, subject to being able to access water at the target survey depth.

With greater accuracy and data resolution, a Willowstick survey enables vastly improved focusing of efforts and expense for subsequent investigations or capital works.


Typical Applications


Leakage and Drainage Mapping
  • Dam leak detection and flow path mapping
  • Mine infiltration, control, and remediation
  • Acid rock drainage
  • Leak detection in pipelines, reservoirs, canals, tunnels
Contaminant Mapping
  • Contaminant plume and reaction front mapping
  • Landfill seepage mapping
Resource Mapping
  • Geothermal mapping and monitoring
  • Oil field steam injection plume mapping




Please contact us to discuss your application. 


Manufacturer / Principal

Download Article: 'Near Surface Geophysics'

Download Article: 'Near Surface Geophysics'
Willowstick survey results showing flowpaths (blue lines) of a leaking tailings dam
Willowstick survey results showing flowpaths (blue lines) of a leaking tailings dam